Instructions for Contributors

Except for the specific instructions here, the directives of The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition; Chicago: University of Chicago, 2010) should be followed.

Procedures for Submission and Evaluation of Articles and Review Articles

Please do NOT submit PDF versions through the site. While the system can certainly handle them 99% of the time, there are often several layers of security/formatting for PDF files and the system can sometimes have issues building the your own PDF into the system PDF. Therefore, please note the following:

Manuscript files: please send in .doc or .docx format only

Figure files: please send in .jpeg, .tif, or .png format only

All other forms: please send in .doc or .docx format only

2 Manuscripts should not exceed 10,000 words.  Please use Times New Roman (or equivalent Macintosh) font for all textual materials. If additional fonts are required, they must be Unicode-compliant and should accompany the submission. Authors are strongly encouraged to use the SBL Hebrew and SBL Greek fonts to set Hebrew and Greek characters; authors can download these two fonts at Authors who need to set text in other languages (e.g., Arabic) should consult with the editors before submitting the manuscript.

3 The manuscript must be double-spaced throughout, including the abstract, text, notes, reference list, and figure captions. Keep margins of at least 1 inch on all sides. Leave the right margin of the text ragged (i.e., no full justification). Sections of the manuscript should appear in the following order: title, abstract, text, acknowledgments, notes to the text, reference list, tables, and figure and table captions. Manuscripts not prepared in accordance with the journal's submission requirements may be returned to the author for retyping before it will be considered.

4 There should be no identifying material contained in the manuscript or supporting materials whatsoever, apart from any which may be contained in a cover letter. Information such as the author(s)’ name, professional and email address, and the same for any co-author(s), will be requested separately as part of the online submission process. This is necessary so that the submitted manuscript and supporting materials can be easily sent out anonymously for peer review.

5 The abstract should focus on the primary thrust of the article and should not exceed 200 words. An abstract is unnecessary for a review article or a response to a review article.

6 A two-level outline usually is sufficient for articles. Use titles for all divisions. Please use these levels: 

a. Even with the left-hand margin, words in capital and lowercase bold letters (title case), for major divisions; 

b. Even with the left-hand margin and on a separate line, for important subdivisions; words in capital and lowercase bold letters (title case), in italics.

c. Indented, as for a paragraph, and on the same line as the text, for minor subdivisions or where greater detail is needed; words in capital and lowercase bold letters (title case). 

7 Submit all notes in the form of endnotes. (The typesetter will convert the endnotes to footnotes during the production process.)

Evaluation and Publication Process

8 Archaeology and Text is a peer-reviewed journal. Manuscripts submitted to Archaeology and Text normally are sent to two readers, one or both of whom may be members of the journal's editorial board. Reviewers evaluate the paper based on such criteria as the importance of the topic, the originality of the research, the methodology of the author(s), and the quality and clarity of the writing. The reviewers recommend to the editors whether the paper should be accepted substantially as is, accepted with modifications, returned for rewriting and a second round of reviews, or rejected. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the editors to decide whether to accept or reject a paper.


9 If a manuscript is recommended for acceptance, the editors will advise the author on any revisions to be made as well as on preparation of the paper for copyediting and publication. It is explicitly understood that acceptance of a manuscript is conditional until the editors consider the paper ready for publication and the author and a representative of the editors have both signed the Archaeology and Text Publication Agreement (for the latter, see below).

10 Once the manuscript has been revised, the author should submit the final draft via the online submission system. 

11 Upon acceptance of the final draft, the editors will send a PDF file containing the Archaeology and Text Publication Agreement to the author(s) of the manuscript. All authors of articles, review articles, and book reviews are required to sign this document—which assigns copyright in their contribution to the Archaeology and Text's editors—before their contribution can be published. The author should fill out the required information on pages 1 and 2 of the agreement, then sign and date the document on page 2, and submit a signed copy to the editors as an email attachment. In the case of a multi-author contribution, each author must sign and date the agreement.

12 The primary (or corresponding) author of the article or review article will receive a PDF copy of the page proofs. The author is responsible for checking the proofs against the manuscript and making all necessary corrections. Changes should be limited to correction of typographical and factual errors. A PDF copy of the corrected proofs (alternatively, a list of errors to be corrected) must be sent to Archaeology and Text's copyeditor/proofreader and editors within four days of receipt of first proofs; otherwise it will be assumed that the author has approved the proofs as is.

13 Once the article or review article has been published, the journal will provide a PDF copy of the contribution to the author. In the case of multi-author articles or review articles, the PDF copy will be sent to the primary (or corresponding) author for distribution to the coauthors.


14 Obtaining permission—and paying any related fee—to publish an illustration in Archaeology and Text from a copyrighted source is the author's responsibility. The author should submit written confirmation from the copyright holder that permission has been granted to reproduce the illustration in Archaeology and Text. The permission must include Archaeology and Text's right to reproduce the illustration (1) in all formats (including digital), (2) in all geographical regions worldwide, and (3) in perpetuity. If a copyright holder adds conditions or restrictions to the permission (e.g., requiring that an illustration be reproduced only in black-and-white or at a certain size), the author should consult the editors before responding to the copyright holder. The figure caption should include the appropriate credit line. Manuscripts will not be sent to the typesetter unless the editors have received copies of all required permissions.


15 Spelling

Follow standard American English conventions. When there is more than one way of spelling a word, use the first choice in Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2002).

16 Italics

Limit italics to such standard uses as book and journal titles, foreign words, and transliterations.

17 Quotations

Quotations of eight or more typewritten lines in any language will be printed as a separate, indented paragraph and in type smaller than that used in the body of the article. Such quotations should be indented. 

18 Place-names

Write place-names as follows: Unfamiliar Arabic site names and words should be written with diacritics. Familiar words such as "wadi" are spelled without diacritics except when joined with a word having them. Be sure to distinguish between ’alep and ‘ayin. Biblical place-names should be cited according to their spelling in the English Bible, without diacritics.

19 Numbers

19.1 In general, cardinal and ordinal numbers from one to ten should be spelled out; for larger numbers, use the figures.

19.2 Figures only should be used in the following instances: 

a. In a series, if one or more of the numbers are greater than ten;

b. In mathematical, technical, scientific, or statistical usage; this includes measures of distance, volume, area, etc.: 1 km, 10 ha, 2 hr. Abbreviations of such measures are not followed by periods (e.g., 10 km, not 10 km.).

19.3 Within the text, common fractions are written out: "one-third of the population . . . "

19.4 For percent and degrees, use the symbols % and ° in both the text and in headings for graphs or tables.

19.5 Use Arabic numbers in all figure and plate references, journal volume numbers, Egyptian dynasties, etc., except where confusion would result. This applies even when Roman numerals are used in the original publication. Do not change page references to Arabic in citing pages in introductions or prolegomena where capital or lowercase Roman is used. Use Arabic numbers for volume numbers of multivolume works, except when the volume number is part of the title (e.g., The Excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim, Vol. 1, but Megiddo II).

19.6 First through tenth centuries should be written out; use figures for centuries higher than the tenth (second century; 13th century).

19.7 Use Roman numerals to indicate strata (Stratum XII; Strata IX–V11), but Arabic numbers for related location designations (Locus 3, Phase 5).

19.8 Use Roman numerals for ancient rulers (e.g., Amenhotep III, Yarimlim I).

19.9 Use the metric system with all measurements (e.g., 7 km, 0.4 m). 

20 Historical and archaeological dates

The standard designations in Archaeology and Text for historical and archaeological dates are B.C.E. and C.E. Authors who wish to use B.C. and A.D. may do so as long as they use the terms consistently.

21 Radiocarbon dates

Include the laboratory code, sample number, and relevant publication information with each radiocarbon date. Express uncalibrated ages as years B.P. Calibrated ages should be expressed as cal B.P., cal C.E., and cal B.C.E. Calibrated dates should be cited using the most recent available international calibration curve. Include the name and version number of the computer program used to calibrate the dates, as well as the website address of the program.

22 Archaeological terms

Do not abbreviate archaeological terms: stratum, locus, level, area, phase, etc. These should be capitalized when they precede a specific reference (Stratum IX, Level 3).

23 Archaeological time periods

Do not abbreviate archaeological time periods when they stand alone, e.g., Middle Bronze Age. When they are followed by a specific subdivision, however, they should be abbreviated, e.g., LB II, MB IIA, except that Iron Age should never be abbreviated. 

24 Compass points

Write out points of the compass (e.g., northwest corner, east–west wall).

25 Abbreviations

The following are commonly used abbreviations: fig(s.) chap(s)., no(s)., p(p)., m, cm, km, L (for liter or liters), ml, col(s)., pl(s)., v(v), n(n)., ca., mg, and kg. Do not abbreviate "line" or "lines" in discussions of inscriptions. Write standard Latin abbreviations and words in roman letters, not italics (for example, et al., not et al.).

26 Abbreviations of biblical sources

OT, NT, HB, LXX, MT, QL, Vg, OL, G, or OG (preceded by "the" when needed, but with no punctuation) for the terms Old Testament, New Testament, Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, Masoretic Text, Qumran Literature, and Vulgate. Consult The SBL Handbook of Style for Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999) for abbreviations and sigla of Dead Sea Scrolls and related documents.

27 Citation of biblical books

Do not italicize biblical books. Standard abbreviations for them are to be used, without punctuation, only when both chapter and verse references follow: Gen 1:2, Exod 3:4, but not when only the chapter follows, e.g., Romans 8. There is no space after the colon. The colon should be used in referring to intertestamental literature and the Mishna. In references to Philo, classical, and patristic literature, the current English or Latin titles are to be used (italicized and abbreviated, if possible, and without punctuation), followed by appropriate book, chapter, and paragraph numbers where available. Thus, Homer Il. 24.200; Eusebius Hist.ecc1. 3.3.2. For Josephus, the following form is used: JW 2.8.16 §160. Abbreviations for Josephus are: AgAp, Ant, JW, Life.

28 Tables

Keep tables as simple as possible. Captions should be short and explicit; explanatory material may be included in a note appended to the table. 

29 Illustrations

Submit figures as TIFF or EPS files. Photographs should be saved at a minimum of 300 dpi, line art at 800–1200 dpi. Whenever possible, submit illustrations in a form close to the anticipated published size. Avoid submitting exceptionally large illustrations. Label files fig. 1, fig. 2, etc. Include a statement of scale in the figure caption if there is no scale in the figure itself. Maps and plans should have a north arrow. Designate line drawings, charts, graphs, and photographs as "figures" (do not designate any illustration as "plates"). Provide a separate list of captions for the figures.

30 Tables

Number tables in a separate sequence from the figures. Prepare all tables in Microsoft Word. Save one table per page. Provide a separate list of captions for the tables.

31 Citations and notes

31.1 Archaeology and Text uses the author-date system of documentation in the text, footnotes, and reference list. Text citations are incorporated, in parentheses, within the body of the article, citing the work by author's last name; year of publication; page; and plate, figure, or table number. There is no space after the colon in figure or plate references. Separate citations containing two or more references by semicolons. Examples: "(Milson 2007: 236–42)"; "Amiran 1969: 134, pl. 41:11"; "(Akkermans and Schwartz 2003)"; "Matthews, Pollard, and Ramage 1998: 195)"; "(Parker et al. 2006: 84–94)" (for items containing more than three authors).

31.2 Page citation should follow the style illustrated here: 100–105, 202–7; but 123–55, 532–85; 324–421. Do not use f. or ff. This system applies to any citation of numbered items, e.g., pl. 23:13–14; fig. 3:11–15. Dates are written out in full, e.g., 1225–1200 B.C.E., 330–339 C.E..

31.3 Number notes sequentially in the text, using superscript numbers. Compile all notes at the end of the article but before the references. Citations within the notes must meet the same requirements as those in the main text.

32 Reference list

32.1 Provide a separate, carefully compiled list of references of all works cited in the article, including those in figure captions. (Do not include publications that may have been used in preparation of the paper but are not cited in it.) Include the following information, in full:

32.2 Author of the work, by last name and initials. When more than one work by an author is included, arrange the entries chronologically, oldest date first; for more than one entry by an author(s) in a single year, arrange the entries alphabetically and modify the year citation with a, b, c, etc., as needed. All authors (or editors) should be identified. Two authors are separated by a comma; three or more authors are separated by semicolons.

32.3 Date of original publication. Papers that are "in preparation" should not appear in the list of references. If a paper has been accepted and scheduled for publication, the author may indicate that it is "in press" but do not give a publication date; include this type of citation in the list of references. You should update "in press" items in proofs if the item has been published since the manuscript was submitted. If appropriate, a notation of "personal communication" may be included in the body of the text, e.g., "(William Jones, personal communication, 2008)."

32.4 Full title (including subtitle) of the work. Do not use quotation marks for article titles. Italicize the titles of books and periodicals, observing whether volume numbers in multivolume series are included in the title (e.g., Lachish III: The Iron Age, but Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli, Vol. 2: Ausgrabungsbericht und Architektur).

32.5 Translator(s) and original language of the work (e.g., "Trans. W. Janzen, S. D. McBride, Jr., and C. A. Muenchow, from German). Include the edition from which the translation was made (e.g., "2nd English ed., rev. in accordance with the 28th German ed."),

32.6 Edition used.

32.7 Number of volumes in a multivolume work.

32.8 Festschrifts. Note for whom the work was compiled (if recipient not named in title).32.9 Editors of collected works, symposia, etc.

32.10 Series information, in full, if the work is part of one or more series. Series titles are not italicized.

32.11 Journal title and volume number. Write the complete journal title; do not use abbreviations.

32.12 Inclusive page numbers of articles in journals or books. If an article is published in a language other than English and the publication includes an English summary of that contribution, include the page number(s) of the summary after the page numbers of the article itself. If publication is in modern Hebrew, add "(Hebrew)" at end of entry.

32.13 Publication information, including city and state or country if necessary—for example, to distinguish Cambridge, MA, from Cambridge in England, or to identify the location of a publisher whose home is not commonly known (e.g., Walnut Creek, CA)—and publisher. If a work is published jointly in the United States and another country, cite the American publisher only. Do not include the first name of a publisher; e.g., cite Eerdmans, not William B. Eerdmans. Eliminate the words "Press," "and sons," "and company" along with any unnecessary punctuation.

32.14 City, name of publisher, and date of publication of reprint edition (e.g., "Reprinted New York: AMS, 1978").

32.15 Certain common abbreviations may be used instead of the author's last name and date of publication. These should be italicized, e.g., CAD for The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, or CIS for Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. If such abbreviations are used, the work should be cited in the references under the abbreviation, e.g.:

KAI = Donner, H., and Rollig, W.

1971 Kanaanaische und aramaische Inschriften. 3rd ed. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

32.16 For references to classical literature, use the style indicated in The Chicago Manual of Style. Although such elements as authors' names, titles of works, and collections of inscriptions, papyri, and ostraca are often abbreviated, Archaeology and Text prefers that such abbreviations be minimized. Provide a list of abbreviations in a note or in a separate list at the beginning of the reference list. The most comprehensive list of classical abbreviations available may be found in the front of the Oxford Classical Dictionary, ed. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

32.17 Electronic sources: Provide author, date, journal title and issue number or place of publication and name of publisher, website address, and date accessed. Do not cite a web address that is not accessible at the time the manuscript is submitted.

32.18 Samples of reference entries.



Cross, F. M.

2006 Personal Names in the Samaria Papyri. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 344: 75–90.

Sussman, V.

1963 Some Lamps from Gadot. Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society 27: 192–94 (Hebrew).

Kraabel, A. T. 

1983 The Synagogue and the Jewish Community: Impact of the Discovery of the Sardis Synagogue. Pp. 178–90 in Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times: Results of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis 1958–1975, by G. M. A. Hanfmann. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

French, E. B.

2007 The Impact on Correlations to the Levant of the Recent Stratigraphic Evidence from the Argolid. Pp. 525–36 in The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. III: Proceedings of the SCIEM 2000—2nd EuroConference, Vienna, 28th of May–1st of June 2003, ed. M. Bietak and E. Czerny. Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 37; Contributions to the Chronology of the Eastern Mediterranean 9. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Bienkowski, P.

2002 The Pottery. Pp. 233–351 in Busayra Excavations by Crystal-M. Bennett 1971–1980, ed. P. Bienkowski. British Academy Monographs in Archaeology 13. Oxford: Oxford University. 



Walmsley, A.

2007 Early Islamic Syria: An Archaeological Assessment. London: Duckworth.

Stern, E. 

2001 Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, Vol. 2: The Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian Periods, 732–332 B.C. New York: Doubleday.

Musil, A.

1927 Arabia Deserta: A Topographical Itinerary. Oriental Explorations and Studies 2. New York: American Geographical Society. Reprinted New York: AMS, 1978.

Busink, T. A.

1970–1980 Der Tempel von Jerusalem von Salomo bis Herodes: Eine archäologisch-historische Studie unter Berücksichtigung des westsemitischen Tempelbaus. 2 vols. Studia Francisci Scholten Memoriae Dicata 3. Leiden: Brill.

Contenson, H. de

1995 Aswad et Ghoraifé: Sites néolithiques en Damascène (Syrie) aux IXème et VIIIème millénaires avant l’ère chrétienne. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique 137. Beirut: Institut français d’archéologie du Proche-Orient.

Joukowsky, M. S.

1996 Early Turkey: An Introduction to the Archaeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Lamon, R. S., and Shipton, G. M.

1939 Megiddo I: Seasons of 1925–34, Strata I–V. Oriental Institute Publications 42. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Levy, T. E., and Higham, T., eds.

2005 The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science. London: Equinox.

McEwan, C. W.; Braidwood, L. S.; Frankfort, H.; Güterbock, H. H.; Haines, R. C.; Kantor, H. J.; and Kraeling, C. H. 

1958 Soundings at Tell Fakhariyah. Oriental Institute Publications 79. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Wolff, H. W.

1977 Joel and Amos: A Commentary on the Books of the Prophets Joel and Amos. Trans. W. Janzen, S. D. McBride, Jr., and C. A. Muenchow, from German; ed. S. D. McBride, Jr. Philadelphia: Fortress.


Oakeshott, M. F. 

1978 A Study of the Iron Age II Pottery of East Jordan with Special Reference to Unpublished Material from Edom. Ph.D. dissertation, University of London. 

Conference Paper:

Greer, J. S.; Hesse, B.; and Wapnish, P.

2009 Sacrifice and Feasting at Tel Dan? "Bone Readings" and Data Mining from a Huge Sample. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research, New Orleans.

Book Reviews:

Monroe, C. M.

2002 Review of The House of the Father as Fact and Symbol: Patrimonialism in Ugarit and the Ancient Near East, by J. D. Schloen. Journal of the American Oriental Society 122: 904–7.

Kitchen, K. A.

1991 Review of Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period, ed. A. F. Rainey. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 77: 204–6.

Electronic sources:

Knappett, C.

2000 The Provenance of Red Lustrous Wheel-made Ware: Cyprus. Syria or Anatolia? Internet Archaeology 9. (accessed 12 November 2013)

Bronk Ramsey, C.

2005 OxCal Program v3.10. Oxford: Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit.


Procedures for Submission and Publication of Book Reviews

34 The instructions for articles and review articles apply also to book reviews—with the following major exceptions:

34.1 All reviews should be submitted as email attachments.

34.2 The full publication information for the book (previously provided by the editors) should appear at the top of the review.

34.3 The reviewer's name, institutional affiliation (or home city and state/country), and email address should appear at the end of the review, right-justified, followed by any notes and the reference list (if needed).

34.4 Book reviews should not contain figures or tables.

34.5 A PDF file should accompany the Word file if the Word file contains diacritical marks or non-Latin characters (such as Hebrew or Greek).

34.6 Book reviews do not go out for peer review.

34.7 The copyedited review will not be sent to the reviewer for approval before typesetting; the reviewer will, however, receive page proofs for checking.

34.8 Archaeology and Text does not accept unsolicited reviews, nor does it print responses to reviews.